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The retina is a thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye that transforms light into electrical signals that the brain can comprehend as images. Photoreceptors (rods and cones), which are in charge of detecting light, and ganglion cells, which send visual signals to the brain, are just two of the many types of cells that make up the retina. The retina is a crucial component of the eye and is essential for vision. It aids in processing the visual signals that are delivered to the brain and focusing light onto the photoreceptors. Vision may be impacted by retinal issues, which may call for medical attention.



The following are a few typical issues that might harm the retina:

  • Diabetic retinopathy: This diabetic consequence happens when high blood sugar levels harm the retina’s blood vessels. If neglected, it can result in blindness and vision loss.
  • Retinal detachment: This condition occurs when the retina separates from the underlying tissue. It may cause vision loss and necessitate immediate medical attention.
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): This condition is brought on by damage to the macula, the area of the retina that controls central vision. It is the main reason why elderly folks lose their vision.
  • Macular hole: A macular hole is a tiny hole in the macula that can impair eyesight. Surgery can be used to fix it.

It is crucial to consult with an ophthalmologist (eye doctor) if you are having vision issues or have been diagnosed with a retinal disease in order to identify the root cause and the best course of action.


Retinal surgery comes in a variety of forms, including:


  • Vitrectomy: During this treatment, the vitreous, an eyeball-like substance, is removed, and the retina’s damaged blood vessels are repaired. Conditions like diabetic retinopathy or retinal detachment may be treated with it.
  • Laser surgery: Using a focused beam of light, laser surgery, often referred to as “photocoagulation,” seals leaking blood vessels in the retina and lessens swelling. It can be used to treat illnesses like age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy.
  • Retinal detachment surgery: In this technique, the retina is repaired once it separates from the supporting tissue. The retina can be reattached by laser surgery or by inflating a silicone or specific gas bubble.
  • Macular hole surgery: In this technique, a hole in the macula, the area of the retina that controls central vision, is repaired. A vitrectomy or the injection of silicone or a specific gas into the eye may be used to carry it out.
  • Epiretinal membrane surgery: During this technique, a thin layer of scar tissue that has developed on the retina’s surface is removed. Laser surgery or a vitrectomy may be used to carry it out.



Depending on the type of surgery being performed and the unique requirements of the patient, a customized retinal surgery technique will be followed. Here is a thorough explanation of the process:

  • Consultation: The process begins with a consultation with an ophthalmologist (eye doctor) to discuss the problem and choose the best course of action. To evaluate the retina’s health and choose the best course of action, the ophthalmologist will do a thorough eye exam.
  • Pre-operative preparation: The patient may need to cease taking specific medications and go through any essential tests or procedures before the surgery. Before the procedure, the ophthalmologist will give detailed instructions on what to do, including any food or activity limitations.
  • Surgery: Retina surgery is typically performed as an outpatient treatment, which allows the patient to return home the same day as the operation. Depending on the particular type of treatment being performed, the surgery normally lasts between 30 minutes and two hours. A general anaesthetic will be administered to the patient, rendering them asleep throughout the surgery.
  • Recuperation: Following surgery, the patient will need to cover their eye for a few days to preserve it and promote healing. To help with edoema reduction and infection prevention, they will also need to take eyedrops. Most people can resume their regular activities within a few days; however, it might take a few weeks for all of the surgery’s effects to become apparent.
  • Follow-up care: The patient will require follow-up consultations with the ophthalmologist following surgery to check on the healing process and make sure the procedure was effective. The eye doctor will give detailed advice on how to take care of the eye and what to anticipate during the healing process. In order to achieve the best results after the surgery, it is crucial to closely adhere to the ophthalmologist’s instructions.
  • Epiretinal membrane: This is a microscopic layer of scar tissue that develops on the retina’s surface. Eyesight loss may result from it, and surgery may be necessary to remove the scar tissue and restore vision.



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